### LONG RADIUS ELBOW

The most common is the long radius (LR) elbow where the center to face dimension is always 1 1/2 times the nominal pipe size of the elbow.

**90° ELBOWS**

The functions of a 90 elbow is to change direction or flow In a piping systems.

Elbows are split into three groups which define the distance over which they change direction, expressed as a function of the distance from the centre line of one end to the opposite face.

This is known as the centre to face distance and is equivalent to the radius through which the elbow is bent.

The most common is the long radius (LR) elbow where the center to face dimension is always 1 1/2 times the nominal pipe size of the elbow.

In this case the center to face dimension is the same as the nominal pipe size of the elbow.

This is where the centre to face dimensIon is longer than t he standard long radius type The most common of these is where the centre to face dimension is three times the nominal size.i.e 3D

**45° ELBOWS**

The function of 45 Elbow is the same as a 90 Elbow, but the measur- ement of dimensions , however, is different to that of the 90′ Elbow. The radius of a 4S Elbow is the same as the radius of the 90 L.R.Elbow where ’R’equals 1’/z D.However,the centre to face dimension is not equivalent to the radius as in 90 L.R. Elbows,This is measured from each face to the point of intersection of the centre lines perpendicular to each other.This is due to the smaller degree of bend.

**CAPS**

The function of an end cap is to block off the end of a line in piping systems. This is achieved by placing the end cap over the open line and welding around the joint.

The function of an end cap is to block off the end of a line in piping systems. This is achieved by placing the end cap over the open line and welding around the joint.

The Reducing Tee is manufactured with the branch outlet smaller than the run to obtain the desired flow and pressure through the system.

The function of both types of reducers is to reduce the line from a larger to a smaller pipe size, this obviously results in an increased flow pressure.

With the Eccentric Reducer the smaller outlet end is off center to the larger end enabling it to line up with one side of the inlet and not with the other.

The Concentric Reducer is so manufactured that both inlet and outlet ends are on a common center line. The Concentric reducer is easier and less expensive to produce but does not allow quite the same versatility as the Eccentric Reducer. The lengths of both types are fixed by manufacturing standards.